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Q 1. Where is the power to levy GST derived from?
Ans. Article 246A of the Constitution, which was
introduced by the Constitution (101st Amendment) Act,
2016 confers concurrent powers to both, Parliament and
State Legislatures to make laws with respect to GST i. e.
central tax (CGST) and state tax (SGST) or union territory tax (UTGST).
However, clause 2 of Article 246A read with Article 269A
provides exclusive power to the Parliament to legislate
with respect to inter-State trade or commerce i.e.
integrated tax (IGST).


Q 2. What is the taxable event under GST?
Ans. Taxable event under GST is supply of goods or
services or both. CGST and SGST/ UTGST will be levied on
intra-State supplies. IGST will be levied on inter-State
supplies.


Q 3. Whether supplies made without consideration
will also come within the purview of supply
under GST?
Ans. Yes, but only those activities which are specified in
Schedule I to the CGST Act / SGST Act. The said provision
has been adopted in IGST Act as well as in UTGST Act also.


Q 4. Will giving away essential commodities by a
charitable institution be taxable activity?
Ans. In order to be a supply which is taxable under GST,
the transaction should be in the course or furtherance of
business. As there is no quid pro quo involved in supply
for charitable activities, it is not a supply under GST.


Q 5. Who can notify a transaction to be supply of
goods or services?
Ans. Central Government or State Government, on the
recommendations of the GST Council, can notify an activity
to be the supply of goods and not supply of services or
supply of services and not supply of goods or neither a
supply of goods nor a supply of services.


Q 6. What are composite supply and mixed supply?
How are these two different from each other?
Ans. Composite supply is a supply consisting of two or
more taxable supplies of goods or services or both or any
combination thereof, which are bundled in natural course
and are supplied in conjunction with each other in the
ordinary course of business and where one of which is a
principal supply. For example, when a consumer buys a
television set and he also gets warranty and a
maintenance contract with the TV, this supply is a
composite supply. In this example, supply of TV is the
principal supply, warranty and maintenance service are
ancillary.
Mixed supply is combination of more than one individual
supplies of goods or services or any combination thereof
made in conjunction with each other for a single price,
which can ordinarily be supplied separately. For example,
a shopkeeper selling storage water bottles along with
refrigerator. Bottles and the refrigerator can easily be
priced and sold separately.


Q 7. What is the treatment of composite supply and
mixed supply under GST?
Ans. Composite supply shall be treated as supply of the
principal supply. Mixed supply would be treated as supply
of that particular goods or services which attracts the
highest rate of tax.


Q 8. Are all goods and services taxable under GST?
Ans. Supplies of all goods and services are taxable except
alcoholic liquor for human consumption. Supply of
petroleum crude, high speed diesel, motor spirit (commonly
known as petrol), natural gas and aviation turbine fuel shall
be taxable with effect from a future date. This date would be
notified by the Government on the recommendations of the
GST Council.


Q 9. What is meant by Reverse Charge?
Ans. It means the liability to pay tax is on the recipient of
supply of goods and services instead of the supplier of such
goods or services in respect of notified categories of
supply.


Q 10. Is the reverse charge mechanism applicable
only to services?
Ans. No, reverse charge applies to supplies of both goods
and services, as notified by the Government on the
recommendations of the GST Council.


Q 11. What will be the implications in case of
receipt of supply from unregistered persons?
Ans. In case of receipt of supply from an unregistered
person, the registered person who is receiving goods or
services shall be liable to pay tax under reverse charge
mechanism.


Q 12. Can any person other than the supplier
or recipient be liable to pay tax under GST?
Ans. Yes, the Central/State government can specify
categories of services the tax on which shall be paid by the
electronic commerce operator, if such services are supplied
through it and all the provisions of the Act shall apply to
such electronic commerce operator as if he is the person
liable to pay tax in relation to supply of such services.


Q 13. What is the threshold for opting to pay tax
under the composition scheme?
Ans. The threshold for composition scheme is Rs. 50 Lakhs
of aggregate turnover in the preceding financial year. The
benefit of composition scheme can be availed up to the
turnover of Rs. 50 Lakhs in current financial year.


Q 14. What a re the rates of tax for composition
scheme?
Ans. There are different rates for different sectors. In
normal cases of supplier of goods (i.e. traders), the
composition rate is 0.5 % of the turnover in a State or
Union territory. If the person opting for composition
scheme is manufacturer, then the rate is 1% of the
turnover in a State or Union territory. In case of
restaurant services, it is 2.5% of the turnover in a State or
Union territory. These rates are under one Act, and same
rate would be applicable in the other Act also. So,
effectively, the composition rates (combined rate under
CGST and SGST/UTGST) are 1%, 2% and 5% for normal
supplier, manufacturer and restaurant service
respectively.


Q 15. A person availing composition scheme
during a financial year crosses the turnover of
Rs.50 Lakhs during the course of the year i.e. say
he crosses the turnover of Rs.50 Lakhs in
December? Will he be allowed to pay tax under
composition scheme for the remainder of the year
i.e. till 31st March?
Ans. No. The option availed shall lapse from the day on
which his aggregate turnover during the financial year
exceeds Rs.50 Lakhs.


Q 16. Will a taxable person, having multiple
registrations, be eligible to opt for composition
scheme only for a f e w o f regist ra t ions ?
Ans. All registered persons having the same Permanent
Account Number (PAN) have to opt for composition
scheme. If one registered person opts for normal scheme,
others become ineligible for composition scheme.


Q 17. Can composition scheme be availed of by a
manufacturer and a service supplier?
Ans. Yes, a manufacturer can opt for composition scheme
generally. However, a manufacturer of goods, which would
be notified on the recommendations of the GST Council,
cannot opt for this scheme. This scheme is not available for
services sector, except restaurants.


Q 18. Who are not eligible to opt for composition
scheme?
Ans. Broadly, five categories of registered person are not
eligible to opt for the composition scheme. These are:
(i) supplier of services other than supplier of
restaurant service;
(ii) supplier of goods which are not taxable under the
CGST Act/SGST Act/UTGST Act.
(iii) an inter-State supplier of goods;
(iv) person supplying goods through an electronic
commerce operator;
(v) manufacturer of certain notified goods.


Q 19. Can the registered person under composition
scheme claim input tax credit?
Ans. No, registered person under composition scheme is
not eligible to claim input tax credit.


Q 20. Can the customer who buys from a registered
person who is under the composition scheme
claim composition tax as input tax credit?
Ans. No, customer who buys goods from registered person
who is under composition scheme is not eligible for
composition input tax credit because a composition
scheme supplier cannot issue a tax invoice.


Q 21. Can composition tax be collected from
customers?
Ans. No, the registered person under composition scheme
is not permitted to collect tax. It means that a composition
scheme supplier cannot issue a tax invoice.


Q 22. How to compute ‘aggregate turnover’ to
determine eligibility for composition scheme?
Ans. The methodology to compute aggregate turnover is
given in Section 2(6). Accordingly, ‘aggregate turnover’
means value of all outward supplies (taxable
supplies+exempt supplies+exports + inter-state supplies)
of a person having the same PAN and it excludes taxes
levied under central tax (CGST), State tax (SGST), Union
territory tax (UTGST), integrated tax(IGST) and
compensation cess. Also, the value of inward supplies on
which tax is payable under reverse charge is not taken
into account for calculation of ‘aggregate turnover’.


Q 23. What are the penal consequences if a person
opts for the composition scheme in violation of
the conditions?
Ans. If a taxable person has paid tax under the
composition scheme though he was not eligible for the
scheme then the person would be liable to penalty and the
provisions of section 73 or 74 shall be applicable for
determination of tax and penalty.


Q 24. Does the GST Law empower the Government to
exempt supplies from the levy of GST?
Ans. Yes. In the public interest, the Central or the State
Government can exempt either wholly or partly, on the
recommendations of the GST council, the supplies of goods
or services or both from the levy of GST either absolutely or
subject to conditions. Further the Government can exempt,
under circumstances of an exceptional nature, by special
order any goods or services or both. It has also been
provided in the SGST Act and UTGST Act that any
exemption granted under CGST Act shall be deemed to be
exemption under the said Act.


Q 25. When exemption from whole of tax collected
on goods or services or both has been granted
absolutely, can a person pay tax?
Ans. No, the person supplying exempted goods or services
or both shall not collect the tax in excess of the effective
rate.

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